Riesgos y retos para los profesionales de las disciplinas estomatológicas ante la COVID-19

Denia Morales Navarro

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Resumen

Introducción: Los procedimientos estomatológicos implican exposición frecuente a saliva, sangre y otros fluidos, por lo que existe riesgo de infección nosocomial con COVID-19.

Objetivo: describir la transmisión de la COVID-19, medidas y situación actual en estomatología.

Material y Métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en abril de 2020. Se evaluaron fundamentalmente revistas de la Web of Sciences. Todas las publicaciones incluidas fueron de 2020 en inglés y español. Se emplearon descriptores como: “coronavirus infections” y “transmission”.

Desarrollo: la enzima convertidora de angiotensina II tiene un nivel de expresión en tejidos bucales y es mayor en la lengua. La saliva es un medio de transmisión. Muchos trabajadores sanitarios se han contagiado y fallecido durante la pandemia. Los pacientes y profesionales de estomatología pueden exponerse a virus que infectan la cavidad bucal y el tracto respiratorio y las medidas recomendadas incluyen el cese de las actividades electivas, uso de elementos de barrera y control de aerosoles.

Conclusiones: la saliva es el medio de transmisión principal por COVID-19 en estomatología y los aerosoles originados en la atención aumentan el riesgo de contaminación. Las medidas recomendadas incluyen emplear medios de protección y desinfección de superficies. Muchos países suspendieron la atención estomatológica, a excepción de la urgente.

Palabras clave

infecciones por coronavirus; síndrome respiratorio agudo grave; pandemias; transmisión; transmisión de enfermedad infecciosa de paciente a profesional; personal de odontología; protección; personal de salud

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