Caracterización clínica e inmunológica del Asma Neutrofílica

Jesús Salím Burón Hernández, Concepción Insua Arregui, Mercedes Lazo López

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Resumen

Introducción: El asma bronquial es una enfermedad mucho más compleja de lo que inicialmente se consideraba, es multifactorial y se manifiesta en diferentes fenotipos clínicos, entre ellos, el asma neutrofílica.

Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica e inmunológicamente el asma neutrofílica.

Material y Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica actualizada. Se empleó el motor de búsqueda Google Académico y se consultaron artículos de libre acceso en las bases de datos Pubmed y Scielo y se revisaron 50 artículos.

Desarrollo: Los neutrófilos están presentes en las vías respiratorias del paciente con asma, se activan y pueden liberar mediadores que promueven y prolongan los síntomas del asma, la presencia de neutrófilos puede ser mediada por interleucina 17(IL-17), la hipótesis de cambios en la microbiota, la obesidad y las infecciones, constituyen elementos primordiales en este tipo de enfermedad. Para aliviar los síntomas de estos pacientes, se necesita una terapia dirigida a disminuir la inflamación dominada por neutrófilos.

Conclusiones: El asma neutrofílica es una enfermedad crónica fenotípicamente heterogénea de las vías respiratorias, que implica la participación de numerosas células inflamatorias y más de cien mediadores con múltiples efectos inflamatorios, como el broncoespasmo, la exudación plasmática, la hipersecreción de moco y la activación sensorial. Actualmente existen pocas drogas dirigidas contra la inflamación neutrofílica y la mayoría se encuentran en estudio con el objetivo de aliviar y mejorar las condiciones de vida de cada uno de los pacientes que sufren esta enfermedad.

Palabras clave

Asma, inmunológico, neutrófilos, asma neutrofílica.

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