La inflamación desde una perspectiva inmunológica: desafío a la Medicina en el siglo XXl

Maricarmen González Costa, Alexander Ariel Padrón González

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Resumen

Introducción: La inflamación es una respuesta homeostática del organismo. Es uno de los principales motivos de consulta en Cuba y el mundo. Existe una percepción errónea de que es una entidad aislada y siempre patológica. Es un proceso dinámico, complejo, sistémico y multifactorial. Por eso constituye un reto el dilucidar los elementos, cambios tisulares que causa y cómo proceder en la clínica ante un cuadro inflamatorio.

Objetivo: Describir la inflamación, su clasificación, elementos involucrados y cambios sistémicos desde una perspectiva inmunológica.

Material y Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sobre el tema empleando la bibliografía actualizada y luego se consultaron artículos de libre acceso en las bases de datos Pubmed y Scielo en el período de enero de 2013 a diciembre de 2018.

Desarrollo: La inflamación puede clasificarse según el daño, tiempo o los efectores involucrados. Las principales moléculas son las citocinas como TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, TGF-β. Participan células como los neutrófilos, mastocitos, macrófagos, linfocitos T y las del endotelio vascular. Durante el proceso inflamatorio se modifican las funciones de casi todos los sistemas de órganos. En ciertos tipos de inflamación, es la respuesta adaptativa quien origina y perpetúa el proceso inflamatorio.

Conclusiones: En la actualidad se desconocen los acontecimientos que desencadenan inflamación crónica y cómo ocurre el daño tisular. El mayor desafío consiste en dilucidar las causas y mecanismos inmunológicos que conllevan a las manifestaciones inflamatorias sistémicas que se manifiestan como enfermedades neurológicas, cardiovasculares y autoinmunes, entre otras.

Palabras claves: Inflamación aguda, inflamación crónica, mediadores proinflamatorios, sepsis.

Palabras clave

Inflamación aguda; inflamación crónica; mediadores proinflamatorios; sepsis. acute inflammation; chronic inflammation; proinflammatory mediators; sepsis.

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